Within the solid state, the titanium alloys are arranged in either hexagonal close-packed (alpha) or body-centered cubic (beta) structure. Pure titanium undergoes an allotropic transformation from hexagonal close-packed (HCP) alpha titanium to body-centered cubic (BCC) beta titanium as its temperatures is raised by means of 882 C (1620 F). The melting point of pure titanium is 1668 C (3034 F) and foundry castings. Aluminum is the most broadly used alloying element in titanium-based alloys. It can be the only typical metal that raises the beta transus temperatures and also have big solubilities in both the alpha and beta stages.
Things just like aluminum, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, gallium, germanium, lanthanum, and cerium stabilize the alpha stage to higher heat and so are therefore called alpha stabilizers.
In common, transition metals and noble metals (i.e., metals which, like titanium, have unfilled or just-filled d-electron bands) will most certainly be stabilizers of the beta stage to reduced temp and so are thus known as beta stabilizers.
Beta stabilizers are generally subdivided into two groups: beta-isomorphous (e.g. vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and rhenium) and beta-eutectoid (e.g., copper, silver, gold, palladium, indium, lead, bismuth, chromium, tungsten, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, uranium, hydrogen, and silicon).
Vanadium, molybdenum, and niobium can be one of the most frequently utilised beta-isomorphous developing factors in titanium-based alloys. These components, when added in enough concentrations, can stabilize the beta stage to room temperatures. Tantalum and rhenium, which might be also beta-isomorphous forming components, seem to be rarely utilized, mainly as a result of their higher densities.
Chromium, iron, and silicon can be the only beta-eutectoid forming elements which are commonly utilised in several titanium-based alloys and metals titanium.
Zirconium, hafnium, and tin type a team of alloying things identified as neutral additions. These three factors will be at times classified as beta stabilizers, because they depress the beta transus temperatures (albeit only somewhat) within their respective binary stage diagrams with titanium. Zirconium and hafnium tend to be isomorphous with titanium and exhibit exactly the same beta to alpha allotropic stage transformations. These two components have complete solubilities inside the alpha and beta stages of titanium. Tin is often a beta-eutectoid developing element and its effect on the beta transus temperature is negligible for all realistic functions.